I. Characteristics of Agoraphobia
Characteristics of agoraphobia are a marked fear or anxiety about two or more of the following: "using public transportation" like cars, planes, trains, and buses; "being in open spaces" like a market, a parking lot, a bridge, or ship; "being in enclosed places" like a store, a theater, or an elevator; "standing in line or being in a crowd"; or "being outside of the home alone." (APA, 2013, pg 217) This fear differs from other phobias in that the fear is not the specific place or thing, but the person is afraid that they might not be able to leave or get help if they panic or are incapacitated or have embarrassing symptoms or situations. This might be because of other medical conditions such as vomiting or inflammatory bowel symptoms. Older adults might fear falling. Children might fe...
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Cammin-Nowak, S., Helbig-Lang, S., Lang, T., Gloster, A. T., Fehm, L., Gerlach, A. L., & ... Wittchen, H. U. (2013). Specificity of Homework Compliance Effects on Treatment Outcome in CBT: Evidence from a Controlled Trial on Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 69(6), 616-629. doi:10.1002/jclp.21975
Pollard, C. Alec, and Elke White. The Agoraphobia Workbook: a Comprehensive Program to End Your Fear of Symptom Attacks. Oakland, Calif.: New Harbinger, 2003. Print.
Strodl, E., & Noller, P. (2003). The relationship of adult attachment dimensions to depression and agoraphobia. Personal Relationships, 10(2), 171-186. doi:10.1111/1475-6811.00044
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